The three-time Olympic 100m champion won in 10.06 seconds, 0.03secs ahead of Cuba’s Yunier Perez.
Britain’s Mo Farah won the 10,000m in 27 minutes and 12 seconds, 2mins 34secs clear of Kenya’s Mathew Kimeli.
South Africa’s Wayde van Niekerk set a 300m world record of 30.81, beating Michael Johnson’s 30.85 set in 2000.
Van Niekerk is the first man in history to run sub-10 seconds for 100m, sub-20 seconds for 200m, sub-31 seconds for 300m and sub-44 seconds for 400m.
Bolt was expected to retire at the World Championships in London in August but before this race he said that, while this will be his final season, he may race beyond the event.
He is the most successful man in the history of the championships with 13 world medals, including 11 gold.
Fellow Jamaican Merlene Ottey, with 14, is the most decorated female at the event.
It is the first time in his career that Bolt, 30, has run two successive 100m races of more than 10 seconds.
“I’m not happy but I’m just getting into my running and have some training to do,” he said.
“I’ll be fine. I need to get checked over by my doctor and the coach will give me some training, so no worries.”